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Tom 4 numer 2


e-ISSN 20841043

Kraków, December 2014, volume 4, number 2


Temat wiodący numeru:

Filozofia nauki z perspektywy humanistyki

redakcja Grzegorz Trela

arrow_photo by Marzenna Jakubczak

Od redakcji

Introduction to the issue (Grzegorz TRELA) (217-220)


Adam NOWACZYK, Ajdukiewicz o stosowalności czystej logiki (221-227)

The paper is an analysis of the arguments contained by Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz in his article on the applicability of pure logic to philosophical issues (1934). The author argues that philosophers in support of their claims can not use pure logic statements as evidence. Because theses formulate their common language, they can only appeal to the logic of everyday language, an alternative to the modern systems of symbolic logic.
Słowa kluczowe: pure logic; conventionalism; philosophy; hermeneutics; the principle of extensional; Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz

Albert PIETTE, Existential anthropology: what could it be? An interpretation of Heidegger (229-246)

Based on an interpretation of the work of Martin Heidegger, this article offers a shift away from social and cultural anthropology, which explores sociocultural aspects, and also from general anthropology, which aims to summarise all dimensions of human being. The author defines the specificity of existential anthropology: observing and conceiving human beings as they exist and continue to exist towards death. With a few twists in relation to Heidegger’s thought, the author discusses what is theoretically and methodologically at stake in this perspective, opening existential anthropology to a large empirical field.
Słowa kluczowe: existential anthropology; Martin Heidegger; existence; observation; theory; relation; death; individual

Tyler TRITTEN, Per posterius: Peirce, Hume, miracles and the boundaries of the scientific game (247-266)

This article provides a response to David Hume’s argument against the plausibility of miracles as found in Section 10 of his An enquiry concerning human understanding by means of Charles Sanders Peirce’s method of retroduction, hypothetic inference, and abduction, as it is explicated and applied in his article entitled A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God, rather than focusing primarily on Peirce’s explicit reaction to Hume in regard to miracles, as found in Hume on miracles. The main focus will be on Peirce’s neglected argument rather than his explicit confrontation with Hume on the issue of miracles, because his criticisms of Hume demands a methodological approach appropriate for scientifically analysing surprising phenomena or outliers, of which miracles or the reality of God would be but two examples amongst many. This article, then, consists of an attempt to construct this method as one that draws inferences neither a priori nor a posteriori, but per posterius, because such a method is capable of rigorously questioning rogue or surprising phenomena, e.g. miracles.
Słowa kluczowe: methodology; abduction; Neglected Argument; God; play

Przemysław SPRYSZAK, Definicja qualiów – przyczynek do filozofii logicznej (267-276)

In my article, I propose an abstract definition of a quale, which (generally speaking) identifies qualia with sets belonging to certain relational structures. I maintain that my definition, by not taking advantage of psychological terms, makes the notion of a quale more understandable and the existence of qualia themselves less disputable than is commonly supposed. In addition, I briefly discuss the traditional concept of a quale.
Słowa kluczowe: quale; relational structure; anti‑psychologism

Grzegorz TRELA, Nauka i wartościowania – uwagi o kondycji filozoficznej refleksji nad nauką (277-298)

This text is an attempt at a more general look at twentieth‑century philosophical reflection on science conceived as persistent trials to eliminate the non‑eliminateable, i.e. valuations. In this article, I recall the most important concepts of knowledge developed in the twentieth‑century philosophy of science by exposing assumed axiology in, among other things: the Vienna Circle, Karl Raimund Popper’s falsificationism, the historical and social approach of Thomas S. Kuhn’s paradigm, and the concept of the ideals of knowledge by Stefan Amsterdamski. I argue that the axiology, and more broadly philosophy is an indelible component of each accepted concept of scientific knowledge. Each concept of knowledge assumes a form of its valuation.
Słowa kluczowe: science; values; valuation; axiology; knowledge

Jan WAWRZYNIAK, Austin i Quine o rozróżnieniu analityczne / syntetyczne? (299-314)

Both John Langshaw Austin and Willard Van Orman Quine were critical of the traditional division of propositions into the two categories: analytic and synthetic. Their criticism has, however, a different character. Quine questions the usefulness of the notion of analyticity, whereas Austin does not accept the view that every proposition should be considered either analytic or synthetic. According to Quine, we have to abandon the notion of analyticity because we cannot define it in a satisfactory way. Quine’s criticism is based on his conviction that the very notion of meaning is suspicious from the scientific point of view. This general outlook is supported by arguments the point of which is to show that we cannot avoid an indeterminacy of translation. Austin criticises the distinction for different reasons. According to him, it is not the notion of meaning which is suspicious, but a certain model of this notion — a model which is based on false analogies. In my text, I compare these two approaches and point out that they have different metaphilosophical sources. The main difference lies in the fact that, according to Austin, statements about linguistic meaning usually have a descriptive character, whereas Quine claims that linguistic meanings are theoretical entities. In the last part of my article, I discuss the thesis of indeterminacy of translation and assess its credibility, as it plays a key role in Quine’s criticism of the notion of meaning.
Słowa kluczowe: John Langshaw Austin; Willard Van Orman Quine; analytic; synthetic; meaning; indeterminacy of translation

Paweł PRUSKI, Między determinizmem a prawdopodobieństwem – analiza poglądów Jana Łukasiewicza (315-324)

In the contemporary philosophical debate about probability, one of the main problems concerns the relation between objective probability and determinism. Is it possible for objective probability and determinism to co‑exist? This is one of the questions this dispute tries to answer. The scope of discussion is conducted between advocates of a positive answer (compatibilist) and co‑existence opponents (incompatibilist). In the early twentieth century, many logicians also developed topics regarding probability and determinism. One of them was the outstanding Polish logician and philosopher — Jan Łukasiewicz. The general purpose of this paper is to analyse and implement Łukasiewicz’s views regarding determinism and probability in the contemporary field of this problem. I will try to show the relation between his interpretations of these concepts and in consequence his attempt to confront them. As a result of the above analysis, I present some different positions (located in the fields of logic and semantics) in the contemporary discourse about the relation between objective probability and determinism. Moreover, I will present Łukasiewicz’s views about this relation and the consequence of these solutions in the field of logic.
Słowa kluczowe: objective probability; logical determinism; philosophical interpretations of probability

Renata TRELA, Radykalny konwencjonalizm współcześnie (325-340)

In this article, I reconstruct Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s view that he called radical conventionalism (as opposed to moderate conventionalism developed by Henri Poincaré and Pierre Duhem). Then, I recall little‑known criticism of this approach developed by Stefan Amsterdamski. Finally, I demonstrate, contrary to the conception of the originator’s declarations, that a radical conventionalism is not a ‘paper fiction’. On the other hand, the standpoint of radical conventionalism is useful due to the precision of expressions provided to it by Ajdukiewicz; it shows the difficulties that have to be tackled by each philosophical approach assuming a social constructivism or related notion.
Słowa kluczowe: radical conventionalism; Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz; Stefan Amsterdamski; social constructivism; theory of reference; realism; empiricism

Zbigniew WOLAK, Problemy terminologiczne w argumentach za istnieniem Boga (341-358)

In the article I deal with some paradoxes and errors caused by improper usage of logical and philosophical terms appearing in the arguments for existence of God and other philosophical issues. I point at first some paradoxes coming from improper usage of propositional calculus as an instrument for analysis of a natural language. This language is actually not using simple sentences but rather propositional functions, their logical connections, and some replacements for variables in them. We still have to deal with so called paradox of material implication.
The second paragraph provides formal and metatheoretical critics of Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of deduction, induction and abduction. I argue that what Peirce and his followers call abduction is actually deduction or some reasoning unable to describe in terms of the logic used by them. Both syllogistic and inferential theory of abduction generate some paradoxes and contradictions. In the last paragraph also some paradoxes and contradictions resulting from the theory of causation by Jan Łukasiewicz are presented. The central issue of the article is erroneous usage of the implication: in logical paraphrases of a natural language, in description of the scientific reasoning, and in description of causality. However, my objective is not to solve all problems mentioned above but rather to open a discussion over them.
Słowa kluczowe: material implication; formal implication; paradox of implication; deduction; reduction; induction;
abduction; conversational implicature; causality

Małgorzata CIELICZKO, Przeciw empatii – Sartre i Gombrowicz, czyli jak filozofia i literatura wyprzedzają koncepcje naukowe (359-374)

The article presents Jean Paul Sartre’s idea of the human body and the bodiliness described in his book Being and nothingness (1943). In this book, Sartre argued that every human relation is based on the objectification of one human by another, and entering into empathic contactis basically impossible. The author of the article has confronted this thesis with contemporary psychological and neuropsychological thought (mirror neuron theory) and has investigated how the category of empathy functions in literary studies. A very important part of this article
is the reflection on the presence and topicality of Sartre’s beliefs in the literature. The author has conducted an interpretation of Witold Gombrowicz’s story Tancerz mecenasa Kraykowskiego (1926) from the collection Bakakaj (1957), and has shown that the ideas presented by Sartre are reflected there in a very interesting way. Sartre’s philosophy turns out to be absolutely up‑to‑date right now, more than many psychological theories — it not only supplies a philosophical base for the analysis of human relations (those also presented in literature), but also gives a certain tool for describing them in the form of specific language and terminology.
Słowa kluczowe: body; corporeality; being; empathy; compassion; identification; interpersonal relations; mirror
neurons; Jean Paul Sartre; Witold Gombrowicz

Paulina SEIDLER, Definicje przedmiotu teoretycznego (375-390)

The paper presents three main definitions of theoretical entity: basic definition, definition from unobservability, and ontological definition. These are the definitions of theoretical entity that are most popular and widely accepted by philosophers of science (both realists and antirealists). All these definitions contain significant defects, which lead to unacceptable conclusions. The author also offers an alternative definition from explanation, which avoids the defects of previous definitions. The aim of the paper is to prove that proper definition of theoretical entity is necessary in debates over scientific realism. To make a legitimate claim about the existence of theoretical entities, one should know what theoretical entity really is.
Słowa kluczowe: existence; realism; observation; criterion

Agnieszka WESOŁOWSKA, Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology and the project of science (391-404)

The article presents Edmund Husserl’s idea of transcendental phenomenology in the perspective of the project of science. This aspect of Husserl’s writings was pointed out by, for example, Rudolf Bernet, Manfred Brelage, Iso Kern, Eduard Marbach, Eugen Fink, Ludwig Landgrebe, and Roman Ingarden. The main aim, realised in the article is to prove the main hypothesis claiming that transcendental phenomenology is closely connected with Husserl’s conception of philosophy, the idea of philosophy as a science (eidetic and transcendental). The project of transcendental science and knowledge is also connected with Husserl’s conception of transcendental reduction taken as a mode of revealing those constitutive achievements of consciousness which were covered in the natural attitude. In the paper, I focus on presenting the most important points (epistemological, methodological, and transcendental) connected with Husserl’s evolution of phenomenology in the perspective of the project of science.
Słowa kluczowe: philosophy; consciousness; transcendental reduction; subjectivity; cognition

Hubert BOŻEK, Teoria wielości rzeczywistości Leona Chwistka. Rys krytyczny (405-424)

The purpose of this paper is to offer a logico‑philosophical critical overview of the theory of multiple realities (TWR). The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I present a brief history of the development of some ideas, which combined together form the conceptual framework of the theory in question, whose main thesis is that there is more than one reality. In the second part I present (and try to address) some interpretations of TWR, which can be described as: ontological; epistemological; esthetical; logical ad mixed interpretations. When doing so, a special emphasis is laid on the presentation of an explication of TWR based on theory of models, an explication authored by Teresa Kostyrko. This explication rests on a conditional recognition of the particular ‘realities’ of Chwistek’s theory as proper models (i.e. those, which fulfill the condition of the identity of meaning of theory’s fundamental notions) of the theories of reality, with the provision that such models are indeed constructible. In the last section of my paper I propose a preliminary appraisal of the TWR as well as a way to reengineer this theory in order to avoid some of its difficulties. By appealing to Kostyrko’s idea on one hand and the spirit Quinean ontological relativism on the other, I wish to argue as follows: (1) ‘reality’ is the name of the set comprising all meanings of the term ‘reality’; (2) under particular conditions these meanings can be arranged in a theory, which posseses a proper model (scientific discourse, some forms of the common talk); (3) model proper designate by definition classes of objects, which we regard as existent on the grounds of a given theory. The above set of theses forms the core of a concept, which I propose to call the ‘manifold reality’ in order to differentiate it from TWR, the development of which theory it is, as well as its modification towards a new kind of ontology.
Słowa kluczowe: Leon Chwistek; many realities; manifold reality; model theory; ontological relativism; ontology;

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Ryszard MIREK, Application of natural deduction in Renaissance geometry (425-438)

Źródło finansowania: Artykuł ten powstał w wyniku realizacji projektu badawczego nr 2012/07/B/HS1/01986 finansowanego ze środków Narodowego Centrum Nauki. My goal here is to provide a detailed analysis of the methods of inference that are employed in De prospectiva pingendi. For this purpose, a method of natural deduction is proposed. The treatise by Piero della Francesca is a manifestation of a union between the fine arts and the mathematical sciences of arithmetic and geometry. He defines painting as a part of perspective and, speaking precisely, as a branch of geometry, which is why we find advanced geometrical exercises here.
Słowa kluczowe: philosophy of art; perspective in painting; geometry in art perception; reasoning and aesthetic perception


KARTEZJUSZ, Geometria (księga II). przeł. Piotr BŁASZCZYK i Kazimierz MRÓWKA (439-446)

Słowa kluczowe i źródło przekładu
Descartes; The Geometry; geometrical curve; continuous quantity; point
Źródło przekładu: DESCARTES, R. (1637). Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences, plus la Dioptrique, les Météores et la Géométrie qui sont des essais de cette méthode, Leyde: l’Imprimerie de Jan Maire.

Recenzje książek i noty

Artur SZUTTA, Obywatelskie nieposłuszeństwo. Próba określenia pojęciaRec. Katarzyna HAREMSKA (447-458)

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Jan WOLEŃSKI, Wierzę w to, co potrafię zrozumiećRec. Joanna PIERZGA (459-464)

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Stanisław Ignacy WITKIEWICZ, Nauki ścisłe a filozofia i inne pisma filozoficzneRec. Renata TRELA (465-470)

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Janusz DEGLER, Witkacego portret wielokrotnyRec. Magdalena KŁECZEK (471-474)

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Maciej ZAREMBA-BIELAWSKI, Higieniści – z dziejów eugenikiRec. Magdalena KŁECZEK (465-478)

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Volker HALBACH, Aksjomatyczne teorie prawdyRec. Grzegorz TRELA (479-480)

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Marcin KRÓL, Europa w obliczu końcaRec. Renata TRELA (481-482)

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Pożegnania i wspomnienia

Język, logika i życie społeczne. Wspomnienie o prof. Barbarze Stanosz (1935-2014) – Rec. Grzegorz TRELA (483-490)

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Logika – sprawa ludzka. Wspomnienie o prof. Andrzeju Grzegorczyku (1922-2014) – Rec. Grzegorz TRELA (491-498)

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IV edycja konferencji Rocznice. Perspektywy analitycznej filozofii nauki, filozofii języka i fenomenologii – Hubert BOŻEK (499-502)

Zapowiedzi i zaproszenia

V edycja konferencji Rocznice. Perspektywy analitycznej filozofii nauki, filozofii języka i fenomenologii (503-504)

Międzynarodowa Konferencja. Edyta Stein — godność człowieka (505)

Autorzy tomu

Pełny tekst (507-508)


Piotr BŁASZCZYK i Kazimierz MRÓWKA, Metafizyka ruchu w Geometrii Kartezjusza (i-xliv)

In Book II of The Geometry, Descartes distinguishes some special lines, which he calls geometrical curves. From the mathematical perspective, these curves are identified with polynomials of two variables. In this way, curves, which were understood as continuous quantities in Greek mathematics, turned into objects composed of points in The Geometry.
In this article we present assumptions which led Descartes to this radical change of the concept of curve.
Słowa kluczowe: Descartes; The Geometry; geometrical curve; pointwise curve