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Volume 7 number 1


e-ISSN 20841043

DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1

Kraków, June 2017, volume 7, number 1


Leading theme of the issue:

Buddhism: Between Philosophy and Religion

edited by Krzysztof Jakubczak


Editor’s introduction

Introduction to the issue: Buddhism: between philosophy and religion (Krzysztof JAKUBCZAK) (5-8)


Krzysztof KOSIOR, Dharma sprzed abhidharmy (9-16) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.1)

Dharma before the Abhidharma: The paper deals with the issue as to whether early Buddhism can be defined as a philosophy or as a religion. My analysis starts with the definition of the Buddha as the discoverer of the Dharma — the ancient and ennobling path (purāṇa‑, ariya‑magga)
— which has made him the exalted teacher of gods and people. Then, after characterizing the possible meanings of Abhidharma in the context of their presence in canonical statements expressing Dharma, I draw conclusions about the connection or lack of connection between philosophy and soteriology in the teaching of the Buddha. Finally, after recalling the canonical statements of Buddha on his status, I conclude that the characterization of early Buddhism as a religion is also questionable.
Keywords: early Buddhism; Dharma; Abhidharma; philosophy; religion

Grzegorz POLAK, Czy Budda praktykował ascezę w okresie poprzedzającym jego przebudzenie? Krytyczna analiza sutty Māhasīhanāda ze zbioru Majjhimanikāya (17-32) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.2)

Did the Buddha practice asceticism prior to his awakening? A critical analysis of the Māhasīhanāda Sutta from the Majjhima Nikāya: It is widely believed, that the Buddha practiced the most radical forms of asceticism and self‑mortification prior to his awakening. A critical analysis of the suttas depicting that crucial period of his life shows, however, that the only text which portrays the bodhisatta as a foremost ascetic is the Māhasīhanāda Sutta (MN 12/I, 68). The aim of this paper is to examine the issue of the authenticity of this text and thus to answer the question as to whether there is enough ground to claim that the Buddha was an ascetic at all. Through a comparative analysis, I show that the structure and content of the Māhasīhanāda Sutta cannot be reconciled with other suttas from the Majjhima Nikāya, which describe the bodhisatta’s path to awakening. I point out certain late features of the Māhasīhanāda Sutta. Then, through a comparative analysis I try to show that some parts of the Buddhist text may have been borrowed from the Jain  yāraṃga Sutta. Next, I attempt to reinterpret the term attakilamathānuyogo from the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta in such a way which will not pertain to asceticism. In the final part of the paper, I try to explain how the view that the Buddha was a foremost ascetic prior to his awakening could have arisen.
Keywords: asceticism; meditation; the bodhisatta; Mahāvīra; early Buddhism; Jainism

Przemysław SZCZUREK, Potyczki Kryszny z Buddą. Kilka uwag o polemicznej wymowie Bhagawadgity wobec wczesnego buddyzmu  (33-69) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.3)

Krishna’s skirmishes with the Buddha. Remarks on the polemical meaning of the Bhagavadgītā towards early Buddhism: The paper discusses the issue of the confrontation of the Bhagavadgītā with some aspects of the early Buddhist doctrine as presented in the Pāli canon. The confrontation points to the Bhagavadgītā as being a poem of the (broadly understood) orthodox current of Indian religious thought, which also contains some polemical elements, these mostly addressed to the most powerful heterodox religious current in the first centuries B.C. (which is most probable the date of the Bhagavadgītā’s composition). Several parts of the famous Sanskrit poem are compared and confronted with the respective parts of the Pāli canon in order to demonstrate, firstly, the different approaches of both currents, mostly in ethics and metaphysics, and secondly, the Bhagavadgītā’s reaction to particular elements of early Buddhism. The first six chapters of the Sanskrit poem have been subjected to analysis in this respect.
Keywords: Bhagavadgītā; Buddhism; Pāli canon; polemics; ethics; metaphysics; ātman; Brahman; anattā; prajñā; paññā

Krzysztof JAKUBCZAK, Widzenie pustki a doświadczenie mistyczne – przypadek madhjamaki (71-96) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.4)

Seeing of emptiness and mystical experience — the case of Madhyamaka: The problem of Buddhist religiosity is one of the most classic problems of Buddhist studies. A particular version of this issue is the search for mystical experience in Buddhism. This is due to the conviction that mystical experience is the essence of religious experience itself. The discovery of such an alleged experience fuels comparative speculations between Buddhism and the philosophical and religious traditions of the Mediterranean area. Madhyamaka is the Buddhist tradition which many researchers saw as the fulfillment of such mystical aspirations in Buddhism. In this paper I specify the standard parameters of mystical experience (non‑conceptuality, ineffability, paradoxicality, silence, oneness, fullness) and I conclude that they either cannot be applied to Madhyamaka or that the application is only illusory.
Keywords: Buddhism; mysticism; mystical experience; Madhyamaka; emptiness; nothingness; imputation (adhyāropa, samāropa); non‑conceptuality; ineffability; paradoxicality; silence

Kamil NOWAK, Nierozróżniający wgląd w medytacji buddyzmu chan i jego wczesnobuddyjskie analogie  (97-110) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.5)

Undifferentiating insight in the Chan Buddhist meditation and its early Buddhist analogies:
In the paper a comparative analysis of Chan Buddhist meditation and the early Buddhist meditation has been conducted. In the first part the meditational instructions present in Zuochan yi and the corresponding texts of Chinese Buddhism have been demonstrated. Subsequently, based on those texts, the ideal type of Chan Buddhist meditation is created. The second part consists of the analysis of Aṭṭhaka‑vagga with the corresponding motifs from the other Pali Canon Suttas. The last part consists of a comparative analysis of the ideal type of Chan Buddhist meditation and meditation as shown in Aṭṭhaka‑vagga.
The whole of the analysis aims at demonstrating the topos common for the early Buddhist tradition and Chan Buddhism.
Keywords: Chan Buddhism; early Buddhism; Zuochan yi; Aṭṭhaka‑vagga; meditation; calming; insight

Marek SZYMAŃSKI, Soteriologiczny paradygmat wadżrajany  (111-128) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.6)

The soteriological paradigm of Vajrayāna: The purpose of the paper is to determine the distinctive soteriological paradigm of Tantric Buddhism. The view of Shinichi Tsuda is critically analyzed. The belief that symbols of Buddhahood are essential to achieve Buddhahood appears specific for Vajrayāna. Relevant manipulation of the symbols can be ritual or/and imaginary. Followers are convinced that the manipulation enables them to achieve the final religious goal, not only the intermediate steps. They also believe they can activate and control the processes
that are not dependent on enlightened beings’ good will. However, such a position need not exclude the appreciation of moral and cognitive virtues. Some aspects and variants of the Vajrayāna soteriological paradigm are discussed to avoid any misinterpretation.
Keywords: symbols of Buddhahood; symbol manipulation (ritual or imaginative); moral and cognitive virtues; deity yoga; internalization of a ritual

Paweł SAJDEK, Obrona jedności bytu w Brahmasiddhi Maṇḍanamiśry. Przykład argumentacji scholastycznej (129-144) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.7)

A defense of the unity of being in the Brahmasiddhi of Manḍanamiśra. An example of scholastic argumentation: Chāndogyopaniṣad 6 comprises as many as two out of six renowned “great sayings” (mahā‑vākya): tat tvam asi and ekam evādvitīyam. The question arises as to whether the declared in śruti unity of the Absolute Being is to be understood literally or figuratively.
The opponent (pūrva‑pakṣa) presents three arguments for the figurative meaning of the words. Maṇḍana advocates the literal sense of the statement. The debate is a typical example of an Indian philosophical scholastic text. Scholasticism in India and scholasticism in medieval Europe share some characteristic features, though they also differ in many ways.
Keywords: Indian philosophy; Advaita; Maṇḍana, Brahmasiddhi; unity; scholasticism

Wojciech HANUSZKIEWICZ, Philosophia fundamentalis Friedricha Adolfa Trendelenburga (145-155) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.8)

Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg’s philosophia fundamentalis: Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg (1802–1872) is an author who connects two periods. On the one hand, he attended the lectures of one of the first followers of Immanuel Kant — Karl Leonhard Reinhold, he knew personally
and was influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling. On the other hand, Trendelenburg has educated a very large group of important figures within the German philosophy of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., Wilhelm Dilthey, Franz Brentano and Hermann Cohen). His main work, Logische Untersuchungen (Logical investigations), was to see its release in three editions during his life. In the second edition Trendelenburg adds an introductory chapter, entitled Logik und Metaphysik als grundlegende Wissenschaft [Logic and metaphysics as a basic science]. It presents the idea of philosophy as a science and, like a lens, focuses on the most influential metaphilosophical solutions of the second half of the nineteenth century. The article in its first part presents the academic biography of Trendelenburg, while in the second it discusses the most important meta‑philosophical problems raised in Logische Untersuchungen.
Keywords: Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg; Logische Untersuchungen (Logical investigations); metaphilosophy; philosophy as a science; logic; metaphysics

Translations into Polish

DŌGEN KIGEN, Oko i Skarbiec Prawdziwego Prawa, zwój siódmy: Głęboka wiara w przyczynę-i-skutek. transl. Maciej KANERT (157-165) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.9)

Keywords & acknowledgement
Dōgen Kigen; Buddhism; the law of cause and effect; causality; karma
Źródło przekładu: Kawamura Kōdō (Red. i przyp.). Dōgen zenji zenshū, dai 2 kan. Tōkyō: Shunjūsha.

Friedrich Adolf TRENDELENBURG, Logika i metafizyka jako nauka podstawowa. transl. Wojciech HANUSZKIEWICZ (167-174) (DOI 10.24917/20841043.7.1.10)

Keywords & acknowledgement
Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg; Logische Untersuchungen (Logical investigation); logic; metaphysics; philosophy of science; metaphilosophy
Źródło przekładu: Trendelenburg, F. A. (1870). Logik und Metaphysik als grundlegende Wissenschaft (t. 1,
s. 4–14). W: F. A. Trendelenburg. Logische Untersuchungen. Leipzig: Hirzel.

Polemics and debates
Uwagi Autora Traktatu Polityczno-Filozoficznego w odpowiedzi na recenzję Katarzyny Haremskiej i notę recenzyjną Pawła Kłoczowskiego (175-179)

PhilosOFFer’s lense

Piotr BARTULA, Nieautoryzowany wywiad z Makbetem (181-190)

Book reviews and notes

Catherine Malabou, Ontologia przypadłości. Esej o plastyczności destrukcyjnej. Rev. Magdalena HOŁY-ŁUCZAJ (191-197)

Neela Bhattacharya Saxena, Absent Mother God of the West: A Kali Lover’s Journey into Christianity and Judaism Rev. Dawn ADRIENNE-SALIBA (199-200)

Contributors (201-204)

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