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Volume 3 number 2

e-ISSN 20841043

Kraków, December 2013, volume 3, number 2


Leading theme of the issue:

Martin Heidegger – Inspirations, Interpretations, Contexts

edited by Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz
thematic adviser Janusz Mizera

Munich Pinakoteka_photo by Marzenna Jakubczak

Editors’ notes

Introduction to the issue (Wojciech HANUSZKIEWICZ & Janusz MIZERA) (241-243)

Janusz MIZERA, Uwagi na temat recepcji i tłumaczeń tekstów Martina Heideggera w Polsce (245-252)

Being, Dasein, enowning, event, existentialism, fundamental ontology, fourfold, God, Heidegger Martin, language, phenomenology, thinking, transcendence, translation


Sonia KAMIŃSKA, Wybrane aspekty wielorakiego znaczenia bytu i intencjonalności w ujęciu Franza Brentana i Martina Heideggera (253-271)

The text aims to acquaint the Reader with Franz Brentano’s doctoral dissertation Von der mannigfachen Bedeutung des Seienden nach Aristoteles (1862), which opens the Aristotelica series and that is known to have inspired young Heidegger to become a philosopher. The text analyses the nature and scope of this inspiration. The first part tells the story of the book’s origin and tries to provide a bigger picture for Heidegger’s acquaintance with Brentano’s philosophy as well as presenting him against the background of Brentano’s other students (Kazimierz Twardowski, Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, et al.). The second part describes the famous 15 theses on being, which are the heart of the book On the Several Senses of Being in Aristotle, and thus enables a comparison of Brentano’s Thomistic ontology with the fundamental ontology of Heidegger. And this comparison is the subject of part three, which also tries to verify to what extent Heidegger was in fact indebted to Brentano and whether we can call him a “brentanist” at all.
Keywords: Brentano, Heidegger, Aristotle, St. Thomas, being, ontology, categories, existence, intentionality

Piotr AUGUSTYNIAK, Byt i nicość w myśli Mistrza Eckharta. Początki niemieckiej filozofii woli (273-283)

The article is devoted to Meister Eckhart’s interpretation of ontological structures of reality in which the concepts of being, nothingness, existence, and Godhead play an important role. The article discusses: 1. the interpretation of being and nothingness in the prologue to the Latin Opus Tripartitum; 2. the interpretation of existence and Godhead in German works; 3. the placement of these deliberations in the context of Eckhart’s conception of abgescheidenheit. The article’s main thesis is that in his ontological reflection, Meister Eckhart comes close to thinking about the essence of reality as Will, which is a clear anticipation of an important current in German philosophy.
Keywords: being, nothingness, existence, Godhead, will, Meister Eckhart, German philosophy

Manfred GAWLINA, Anselms Proslogion, “nichts” gegen Nishida und Heidegger (285-300)

What is greater, being or nothingness? Anselm proves the existence of God with the help of nihil: God as nothing greater than any finite being can think of. Anselm’s logical – and perhaps mystic – use of nothingness demands comparison with Heidegger’s negative ontology and its reception in Nishida’s Kyoto School. But doesn’t Zen Buddhist emptiness stand for divine presence being unspeakable?
Keywords: nothing, being, ontology, proof for the existence of God, Proslogion, Anselm, Heidegger, Nishida, Kyoto School

Cezary WOŹNIAK, Heideggera myślenie nicości (301-312)

This paper tries to grasp the wholeness of Heidegger’s thinking of nothingness. In Being and time Heidegger discovers deeper, more fundamental dimensions of existence, among other things, experience of nothingness. In What is metaphysics? Heidegger takes the question of nothingness, opposing its negative understanding in metaphysics. Nothingness is a condition that enables disclosure of beings as such to human beings (Dasein). In general, Heidegger discovers that nothingness belongs to being (Sein), which expresses his late formula: Being: Nothingness: The Same. The question of being is closely bound with the question of time, hence Heidegger’s thinking of nothingness is involved in his reflection on temporalisation. Temporalisation is the free oscillation of primordial temporality as the open horizon which enables worlding (Welten), or entering into world of beings. Therefore, it is called by Heidegger the nihil originarium (The metaphysical foundations of logic). The world is nothingness which temporalises itself primordially, that which arises in and with temporalisation, which late Heidegger (Time and being) also understands as four-dimensional time. Nothingness is also elaborated by Heidegger in Contributions to philosophy where he described it as the essential vibration (Erzitterung) of Being (Seyn). During a seminar in Le Thor (1969), Heidegger said that in endowing (Ereignis) there was no Greek thinking. Endowing is not what “there is”, but what “gives”, “endows” time and being. Being could be understood as presence, however, not a metaphysically understood presence. This presence is not a negative nothingness, but nothingness as nihil originarium, which should be understood rather in a temporal, even energetic meaning and not in an ontological one. However, one can also affirm that nothingness explicated in such manner finally seems to fade away in endowing, this last Heidegger word.
Keywords: Heidegger, nothingness, nihil originarium, being, time, ecstatic time, temporalisation, four-dimensional time, endowing

Joachim PIECUCH, Wniknąć w nicość. Bernharda Weltego wykład o nadziei i rozpaczy (313-322)

The thought of Bernhard Welte, a philosopher of religion from Fribourg, many times touched upon the subject of nothingness. This article aims at presenting the function he ascribed to the idea of nothingness in the context of constitutive experience determining fundamental characteristics of human existence. This constitutive experience involves going through ones finiteness and infinity. The former is expressed as being conscious of one’s mortality and guilt, the latter in the activity of human spirit, especially the feeling of duty. A human being placed in between these opposing powers, seeks the sense of its existence. Simultaneously, it creates different relations which can occur between them. Their order can either lead to affirmation or negation of one’s own existence. If we add the experience of nothingness (with its specificity) to these relations, together they make the act of choosing between affirmation and negation more like the final choice between hope and despair.
Keywords: metaphysics, finiteness, infinity, nothingness, experience, freedom, faith, despair

Artur JEWUŁA, The call and the response. Martin Heidegger and Martin Buber on responsibility (323-338)

The philosophy of subjectivity reached its limits at the beginning of the 20th century. Various attempts at new thinking appears as a reaction to these limits. Such attempts involve, among others, the philosophy of dialogue that was represented in the works of Franz Rosenzweig, Martin Buber, and Eberhard Grisebach. Another approach includes Martin Heidegger’s demand for returning to the question of Being. In this article I intend to present that both attempts are similar in many ways, although their representatives tended to be critical of one another. However, the thought of Martin Buber as well as Martin Heidegger proves to understand a man as a dynamic being, who faces “the calling”. First, I will analyse the thought of Martin Heidegger as presented in Being and Time, then I describe the thought of Martin Buber mainly based on his treaty I and Thou. Finally, I compare the similarities and differences in the thinking of both philosophers.
Keywords: contemporary philosophy, philosophy of dialogue, continental philosophy, subjectivity

Magdalena HOŁY-ŁUCZAJ, Bycie i świat. Metamorfozy pojęcia „świat” w filozofii Martina Heideggera (339-356)

Being and World. Metamorphosis of the Concept of the “World” in the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger The article reconstructs transformation of the concept of the “world” in Martin Heidegger’s view in the light of his: Being and Time, Basic Problems of Phenomenology, On the Essence of Ground, The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics, The Origin of the Work of Art, Contributions to Philosophy, and essays Language, Thing and Building, Dwelling, Thinking. The analysis shows that the subsequent presentation of the problem of the world does not invalidate previous solutions but rather develops their meaning according to which being is only revealed when entities are perceived in their community. Hence, various approaches to the problem of the world indicate different aspects of the community of beings: mutual belonging, kinship, and integrity.
Keywords: Martin Heidegger, world, turn, community

Marcin LUBECKI, Kwestia języka w filozofii Martina Heideggera (357-372)

Martin Heidegger uses different words to express the problematic issue of language and explain what it is. In the fundamental ontology Heidegger focuses on speech. This existentiale (Existenziale) is the means of being-in-the-world that indicates the area of community and is a consequence of the initial disclosedness of Dasein. However, this is not the most important aspect of language issues in Heidegger’s philosophy. According to his “Letter on Humanism”, language is the house of being and human beings dwell in its home. A human being is not Dasein and language is not speech. Moreover, language is not a tool for expression of thought. In late Heidegger’s philosophy, the question of language is related to poetical thinking and brings with “the fourfold” metaphor.
Keywords: language, speech, existentialia, being-in-the-world, disclosedness, fourfold, community

Maria BAL-NOWAK, Kondycja czasu marnego według Friedricha Hölderlina i jej możliwe transformacje (373-381)

The paper presents the concept of “destitute time” of Friederich Hölderlin and its various references: axiological, existential, religious. Martin Heidegger, who studied his poems, offered one of the most striking interpretations of his elegy Bread and Wine. He claims that “destitute time” is the time when God is absent, when His trace comes to be forgotten. The obligation of poetry is not only to diagnose this stage, but rather to transform it.
Keywords: Hölderlin, destitute time, Heidegger, God, menace of nothingness

Monika MURAWSKA, Fenomenologiczna post-narracja. Szkic o fenomenologii Henri Maldineya (383-404)

The paper attempts to outline the fundamental theses of Henri Maldiney’s new phenomenology. The first part presents the style of Maldiney’s discourse to emphasise its significance. The second outlines a rudimentary concept of subjectivity that can be “drawn” from Maldiney’s texts, and the basic categories of this phenomenology, including the concepts of “event” and “encounter”. The third part shows the complexity of this discourse and reconstructs Maldiney’s descriptions of selected phenomena, such as the Matterhorn and a 12th-century miniature depicting the enthroned Christ. Ultimately, the author of the article tries to demonstrate that Maldiney’s phenomenology focuses not only on the question of “what”, but also “how”. The form of his texts, their dispersion, and purposefully unsystematic construction all become a part of them. Just like a work of art, the form turns out to be inseparable from the content and becomes its very essence.
Keywords: phenomenology, a work of art, rhizome, event appearance, narration

* * *

Solehah YAACOB, Linguistic argumentation and logic: An alternative method approach in Arabic grammar (405-427)

The author emphasises the relationship between linguistic argumentation and logic. Linguistic argumentation is a language system which uses the meaning of expressions in a sentence to draw the complete meaning of the sentence that constitutes interdependence between the particular expressions. In fact, this connection between expressions enhances the overall meaning based on the very fundamentals of the sentence structure thanks to the logical relationship between ideas, where there lies a relation between words and the mind that is dependent on the logic of combined utterances. In order to justify the above interpretation, the researcher has turned to the theory of the early system of Arabic grammar, which focuses more on the analogical approach rather than anomaly. The analogical approach in the system is based on the underlying theory that implies the aforementioned relationship, even though some modern views may disagree on the interpretation of this issue. To round off the discussion, the author includes similar existing theories on Latin grammar which have shown the logical approach to be a result of the connection between linguistic argumentation and logic. As a result of this discussion, the connection between words and logic is shown to be a universal concept.
Keywords: linguistic thought, semantic, syntax, declension, deep structure

Małgorzata BOGACZYK-VORMAYR, In der Gegenwart der Anderen. Norbert Elias über Leben und Sterben in der modernen Gesellschaft (429-444)

This article addresses Norbert Elias’s essay The Loneliness of the Dying (1982). In the first part the author reviews Elias’s ideas on how the contemporary social structure has produced characteristic problems for dying. In our age, the phenomena and the reality of death are pushed behind the scenes of social life. The second part presents one of the most important theses in this paper, i.e. the idea of anamnestic reason. The author gives her reflection on the Eliasian concepts of communication, engagement, and balance of power. This We-I-Balance as a learning process should lead to rebalancing and redefinition of anamnestic reason / collective memory. In the third part the author briefly illustrates some similarities between Elias’ category of death and two other ideas: nihilism by T. Różewicz and biopolitics by G. Agamben.
Keywords: death, loneliness, homo clausus, We-I-Balance, anamnestic reason, nihilism, biopolitics, conditio humana / conditio inhumana

Teaching philosophy, lecturing

Pirmin STEKELER-WEITHOFER, Conceptual thinking in Hegel’s (445-474)

Analytical philosophy after Frege’s logicism and Russell’s logical atomism presupposes sortal domains of individual “entities” for which we already have defined their identities and elementary predicates. Such “things” exist only in ideal “possible world” which are nothing but structured sets of purely mathematical sets. In contrast to such purely abstract models, Hegel analyses the role of conceptual differentiations and corresponding default inferences in the real world. Here, all objects are spatially and temporally finite. Even if real things move according to certain forms, they are only moments in holistic processes. Moreover, the forms are no objects of immediate empirical observation but presuppose successfully reproducible actions and speech acts. As a result, no semantics of world-related reference can do without Hegel’s categories, which go far beyond the means of merely relational mathematical logic
Keywords: pconceptual holism, logical atomism, sortal domains, generic forms of change, dispositions, dialectics, categories, quality, quantity, measure, essence

Jean GREISCH, Paul Ricœur: la sagesse de l’incertitude (475-490)

After the Second World War, Paul Ricoeur started his career teaching philosophy at the Collège Cévenol in the village of Chambon-sur-Lignon, where he wrote his doctoral dissertation dedicated to the phenomenological analysis of the voluntary and the involuntary. Borrowed from Milan Kundera, the paradoxical notion of “wisdom of uncertainty”, applied to Ricoeur’s work as a whole, highlights the specific features of his contribution to the development of hermeneutic philosophy in the 20th century.
Keywords: wisdom, uncertainty, phenomenology, hermeneutics, selfhood, otherness

Translations into Polish

Marcus WILLASCHEK, “Spontaniczność poznania”. Zależność “Analityki transcendentalnej” od rozwiązania trzeciej antynomii – transl. Wojciech HANUSZKIEWICZ (491-511)

Keywords and acknowledgement
Kant, spontaneity, spontaneity of the understanding, transcendental freedom, third antinomy
Acknowledgement: WILLASCHEK Marcus (2010): Die “Spontaneität des Erkenntnisses”. Die Abhängigkeit der “Transzendentalen Analytik“ von der Auflösung der dritten Antinomie. [W:] Jiři Chotaš, Jindřich Karásek, Jürgen Stolzenberg (Hrsg.) Metaphysik und Kritik. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann

Jürgen STOLZENBERG, Fichte dzisiaj – transl. Monika ADAMCZYK i Wojciech HANUSZKIEWICZ (513-526)

Keywords and acknowledgement
Fichte, Brandom, consciousness, self-consciousness history of self-consciousness, intersubjectivity
Acknowledgement: STOLZENBERG Jürgen (2009): Fichte heute. [In:] Symposion Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Herkunft und Ausstrahlung seines Denkens. München, 5. und 6. März 2009. Werner Beierwaltes und Erich Fuchs (Hrsg.). Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Abhandlungen, Neue Folge, Heft 134. München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C.H. Beck, 85–96.

Reviews & notes

Lee CHUN LO, Die Gottesauffassung in Husserls Phänomenologie – Monika ADAMCZYK (527-531)

God, transcendental ego, metaphysics, teleology, reason

Maciej BARWACZ, Estetyka Życia – wspólne obszary nietzscheańskiej filozofii oraz przekazów buddyzmu zen- Konrad PYZNAR (533-537)

Buddhism, zen, Nietzsche, aesthetics, life

Thomas S. KUHN, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 50th anniversary – Grzegorz TRELA (539-543)

T. S. Kuhn, S. Amsterdamski, scientific revolutions, paradigm, normal science


Sprawozdanie z międzynarodowego sympozjum „Mind, Language and Action — 36th International Wittgenstein Symposium”
Sprawozdanie z Trzeciej Konferencji Jaspersowskiej. W 130 rocznicę urodzin Karla Jaspersa
Sprawozdanie z III edycji konferencji „Rocznice. Perspektywy analitycznej: filozofii nauki, filozofii języka, fenomenologii”
Sprawozdanie z sympozjum „Nowe oblicza duchowości”

Announcements & invitations

International Philosophical Seminar “Human Body in Comparative Approach: Philosophy, Literature and Art”
IV edycja konferencji „Rocznice. Perspektywy analitycznej: filozofii nauki, filozofii języka, fenomenologii”
XII Ogólnopolskie Filozoficzne Forum Młodych