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Volume 1 number 1

e-ISSN 20841043

Kraków, June 2011, volume 1, number 1


Leading theme of the issue:

Subjectivity and Self-knowledge

edited by Marzenna Jakubczak

self_photo by Marzenna Jakubczak

Editor’s notes
Goal statement for the Argument (Marzenna JAKUBCZAK)

Introduction to the first issue (Marzenna JAKUBCZAK)

Articles and treatises

Sven SELLMER,The Neophenomenological Theory of Subjectivity as a Tool for Comparative Studies (pp. 9-22)

Abstract & keywords
The conception of subjectivity developed by the German philosopher Hermann Schmitz (1927-) is especially suitable for cross-cultural investigations because its foundations lie in human experiences that are basic and universal. The paper has two aims. Firstly, to give an outline of Schmitz’s theory. Secondly, to show its usefulness (and its limits) by interpreting some Greek and Indian philosophers which, at the same time, represent certain main approaches to the problem of subjectivity. Keywords: comparative philosophy ; Greek philosophers ; Hindu philosophy ; Indian philosophy ; neophenomenology ; phenomenology ; self ; Hermann Schmitz ; subjectivity.

Arindam CHAKRABARTI, Troubles with a Second Self: The Problem of Other Minds in 11th Century Indian and 20th Century Western Philosophy (pp. 23-35)

Abstract & keywords
In contemporary Western analytic philosophy, the classic analogical argument explaining our knowledge of other minds has been rejected. But at least three alternative positive theories of our knowledge of the second person have been formulated: the theory-theory, the simulation theory and the theory of direct empathy. After sketching out the problems faced by these accounts of the ego’s access to the contents of the mind of a “second ego”, this paper tries to recreate one argument given by Abhinavagupta (Shaiva philosopher of recognition) to the effect that even in another’s body, one must feel and recognize one’s own self, if one is able to address that embodied person as a “you”. The otherness of You does not take away from its subjectivity. In that sense, just as every second person to whom one could speak is, first, a person, she is also a first person. Even as I regret that I do not know exactly how some other person is feeling right now, I must have some general access to the subjective experience of that other person, for otherwise what is it that I feel so painfully ignorant about? My subjective world is mine only to the extent that I recognize its continuity with a sharable subjective world where other I-s can make a You out of me. Keywords: analytic philosophy ; comparative philosophy ; Indian philosophy ; Shaiva philosophy ; other minds ; self ; self-knowledge ; subjectivity ; knowledge of the second person ; the theory-theory ; the simulation theory ; the theory of direct empathy ; Abhinavagupta ; personal identity.

Marzenna JAKUBCZAK, The Collision of Language and Metaphysics in the Search for Self-Identity: on ahamkara and asmita in Samkhya-Yoga (pp. 37-48)

Abstract & keywords
The author of this paper discusses some major points vital for two classical Indian schools of philosophy: (1) a significant feature of linguistic analysis in the Yoga tradition; (2) the role of the religious practice (iśvara-pranidhana) in the search for true self-identity in Samkhya and Yoga darśanas with special reference to their gnoseological purposes; and (3) some possible readings of ‘ahamkara’ and ‘asmita’ displayed in the context of Samkhya-Yoga phenomenology and metaphysics. The collision of language and metaphysics refers to the risk of paralogism caused by the common linguistic procedures making the subject define its identity within the semantic order (i.e. verbal conventions and grammatical rules) which does not reflect the actual metaphysical situation of the self, though it determines one’s self-understanding in the empirical sense. Whereas, Samkhya-Yoga aims at recognizing, reorganizing and, finally, going beyond these procedures regarded as the obstacles on the path towards self-knowledge and liberation form metaphysical ignorance. Keywords: ahamkara ; asmita ; ego ; Hindu philosophy ; Indian philosophy ; language ; grammar and philosophy ; liberation ; metaphysics ; paralogism ; Patanjali ; Samkhya ; Sankhya ; self ; self-knowledge ; subjectivity ; Yoga.

Włodzimierz HEFLIK, Subject: Construct or Acting Being? The Status of the Subject and the Problem of Solipsism in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus (pp. 49-67)

Abstract & keywords
In his Tractatus and Notebooks 1914-1916, Wittgenstein develops some themes concerning the nature of the subject, transcendentalism, solipsism and mysticism. Though Wittgenstein rejects a naive, psychological understanding of the subject, he preserves the idea of the metaphysical subject, so-called “philosophical I”. The present investigations exhibit two ways of grasping the subject: (1) subject as a boundary (of the world); (2) subject (I) as the world. The author of the paper aims to analyze different methods of conceiving the subject, both logical and transcendental. Then he discusses the naturalistic or reductionist consequences of solipsism which were derived by Wittgenstein. Moreover, he refers to the concept of ‘subject of will’ introduced in the Tractatus. Finally, the author puts a question whether the metaphysical subject is a boundary of the world identified with the subject of will. While trying to answer this question one can point to the essential difficulties of Wittgenstein’s standpoint. These difficulties become especially evident if we examine Wittgenstein’s statements concerning mysticism. The category of subject seems to gain a new dimension when reconsidered in this context. In the conclusion, the author offers an interpretation inspired by Schopenhauer’s conception of the double aspect of the subject that is to overstep these difficulties. Keywords: Ludwig Wittgenstein ; subject ; subjectivity ; self-knowledge ; transcendentalism ; solipsism ; mysticism ; philosophical I ; will ; Arthur Schopenhauer ; double aspect of the subject.

Roger MELIN, Animalism and Person as a Basic Sort (pp. 69-85)

Abstract & keywords
In this paper Animalism is analysed. It will be argued that Animalism is correct in claiming (i) that being of a certain sort of animal S is a fundamental individuative substance sortal concept (animal of the species Homo Sapiens), (ii) that this implies that Animalism is correct in claiming that persons such as us are, by necessity, human beings, (iii) that remaining the same animal is a necessary condition for our identity over time. Contrary to Animalism it will be argued that this does not imply that person should be understood as a phased sortal concept. It will be argued that Animalism rests upon a prior conception of person, and that this implies that person must be understood as a basic substance sortal concept through which we have to individuate ourselves and others. It is further argued that this, together with the insights of Animalism, implies that persons, by necessity, are beings of a biological nature. Keywords: animalism ; personal identity ; person ; self ; subjectivity ; self-knowledge.

Ryszard MIREK, The Systems of Relevance Logic (pp. 87-102)

Abstract & keywords
The system R, or more precisely the pure implicational fragment R›, is considered by the relevance logicians as the most important. The another central system of relevance logic has been the logic E of entailment that was supposed to capture strict relevant implication. The next system of relevance logic is RM or R-mingle. The question is whether adding mingle axiom to R› yields the pure implicational fragment RM› of the system? As concerns the weak systems there are at least two approaches to the problem. First of all, it is possible to restrict a validity of some theorems. In another approach we can investigate even weaker logics which have no theorems and are characterized only by rules of deducibility. Keywords: relevant logic; logic; relevant implication; axiom; system; validity; theorem; deducibility; deduction.


Zbigniew JAKUBOWSKI, Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy i jego myśl (pp. 103-114)

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy – biographical note, Descartes, Franz Rosenzweig, philosophy of speech, the cross of reality (pp. 103-114)

Eugen ROSENSTOCK-HUESSY, Pożegnanie z Kartezjuszem – transl. from English into Polish Zbigniew JAKUBOWSKI (pp. 115-131)

Keywords & Acknowledgement
Descartes, Cartesianism, subjectivity, psycho-physical dualism. Acknowledgement: ‘Farewell to Descartes’, [in:] Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy (1970), I Am an Impure Thinker, foreword by W. H. Auden, Norwich, Vt.: Argo Books, 1-19. The book accessible online at the website of The Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy Fund & Argo Books – http://www.argobooks.org.

Soren KIERKEGAARD, Księga o Adlerze – transl. from Danish into Polish Antoni SZWED (pp. 132-141)

Keywords & Acknowledgement
Reason and faith, immanence, transcendence, philosophy – Christian Revelation, based on the Divine Authority, ethics and Hegel’s System, Peter Adolph Adler. Acknowledgement: ‘Bogen om Adler’ (fragments [of the ‘Book on Adler’]), [in:] Soren Kierkegaards Papirer, second edition by Niels Thulstrup, Kobenhavn: Gyldendal (1968).


Reinhard BRANDT, Immanuel Kant – Was bleibt? Anna SZYRWIŃSKA (pp. 143-145)

Immanuel Kant, transcendentalism, German philosophy

Hans-Georg GADAMER, Wiek filozofii. Rozmowy z Riccardem DottorimPaweł SZNAJDER (pp. 146-149)

Riccard Dottori, Martin Heidegger, Gadamer’s authobiography, ethics and politics, philosophy and nazism

Artur PRZYBYSŁAWSKI, Buddyjska filozofia pustkiKrzysztof JAKUBCZAK (pp. 150-161)

Buddhism, Buddhist philosophy, emptiness, śunyata, Indian philosophy, comparative philosophy, Nagarjuna

Geoffrey SAMUEL, The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century – Agnieszka ROSTALSKA (pp. 162-167)

Yoga, Tantra, Indian philosophy, Hinduism, philosophy of religion

Obituaries and Memories

Leopold ZGODA, Trud istnienia – wspomnienie o profesorze Jerzym Perzanowskim (1943- 2009) (pp. 169-174)

Jerzy Perzanowski, Polish philosopher

Announcements and Invitations
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